is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to, and retrieve data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the
XMLHttpRequestobject. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required (JSON is often used instead), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.
In the 1990s, most web sites were based on complete HTML pages. Each user action required that the page be reloaded from the server (or a new page loaded). This process was inefficient, as reflected by the user experience: all page content disappeared then reappeared. Each time a page was reloaded due to a partial change, all of the content had to be re-sent, even though only some of the information had changed. This placed additional load on the server and used excessive bandwidth. In 1996, the iframe tag was introduced by Internet Explorer to load content asynchronously.
In 1998, Microsoft Outlook Web Access team implemented the first component XMLHTTP by client script.
Google made a wide deployment of standards-compliant, cross browser Ajax with Gmail (2004) and Google Maps (2005).
The term Ajax was coined on 18 February 2005 by Jesse James Garrett in an article entitled "Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications", based on techniques used on Google pages.
On 5 April 2006, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) released the first draft specification for the XMLHttpRequest object in an attempt to create an official web standard.
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